1 Wet on Dry-Pick up

Wet on dry Pick up = Weight Y-Weight X    X 100
                                                 Weight X

2 Wet on Wet-Pick up
The following formula is used to calculate Pick-up
(A) =

Weight Y-Weight X     X 100
Weight X

(B) =

Weight Z-Weight X     X 100
Weight X

Wet on Wet Pick-up = (B - A) + AF

Where F (interchange factor) = 0.7
Doses : Target
Fabric :


Finocon 10X (wetting agent & Detergent) : 3 ml/kg
Diquest SNA (Sequesterant) :

1 ml/kg

Finostab CBR (Stabilizer) : 5 ml/kg
Caustic Soda (Lye 50%) :

40 ml/kg

Hydrogen Peroxide (50%) : 28 ml/kg
Pad Expression:  

Differential PU (DPU) = PU2 – PU1

PU1                                    PU2      

To Calculate feed rates and steady state fabric add-on

    For a 2 tank system, without automated feed Control
Flow rate per tank      =

Fab. Wt. (kg/m) X Speed (m/min.) X DPU

Initial Fill = Target ( g/kg) X DPU X Volume (I)
Tank concentration     =

Target (g/kg) X Speed (mt/min) X Fab.wt(kg/m)
                        Flow rate (1/min)

For a 2 Tank system, without automated flow control. Equal volume of tanks and good mixing.
PU1 =   60%  

PU2   =   110%

Impregnator Volume =

6001 ( actual filled volume)

Fab.wt./Im = 200 gms/linear meter (0.2 kg/m)
Range Speed = 60 Mts/min
Target Add-on = 3 g/kg
DPU = PU2  - PU1           =          50% (0.5)
Flow rate / tank (l/m) =

0.2 X 60 X 0.5                   3 l/m

Tank concentration =

3 X 60 X 0.2         =          12 g/l

Initial fill (g) =

3 X 600                =        3600 gl (6 g/l)

Find out the size mixture
Increase the dose of Finozyme DX
Control the application temp. of desize steps
Ensure washers are working well and are hot
Increase the dwell / batch time
Add Finozyme DX to the tank after it is hot
Avoid steaming the enzyme for too long
Pin holes :
Increase the dose of demineraliser in the size
Lower the demineralisation bath pH to 5.0 with acetic acid
Increase the dwell / batch time
Incorporate a separate demineralisation step

After desize, repeat acidic scour process with demineraliser

Use Diquest S in the bleach (1-2 gpl)
Use oxalic acid in the demineralisation step
Cotton seed or Bits residue :
Check chemical application (Pick & up, dose) Perhaps more bleach required
Increase dwell / batch time and temperature
Check for metal contamination
Add Diquest S to the bleach liquor
Ensure Peroxide bath is stabilized with Finostab SS

Poor Absorbency :

Check chemical application (Pick & up, dose, etc.) Perhaps a stronger bleach is required
Increase caustic soda
Increase the dose of or Finocon LF in the bleach
Increase the dose of Finocon WK in Desize
Increase the dwell time
Increase Nip roller pressure for better washing
Adjust range temperatures for more cleaning energy
Adjust the water flow rates for maximum exchange

Yellow fabric or Damaged & Weak fabric :

This is probably due to over & oxidation of the fabric
Check Chemical application (PU, dose, etc.)

Perhaps less bleach required

Check that the dwell & box or steamer are closed (no oxygen ingress)
Reduce dwell time and temperature
Check for metal contamination
Add Diquest S to the bleach liquour
Increase the dose of Finostab SS in the liquor
Check the fabric before bleach for flaws
Carry out a prescour and then reduce the strength of bleach liquor
Do a cold pad – batch bleach in place of steaming
Avoid hot oxidative desizing

Tailing : Changing Whiteness or absorbency overtime :

Adjust recipe of feed tanks to initial fill (Refer to dose & calculations)
Ensue feed tank solutions are stable and made fresh
Use stabiliser Finostab SS with the bleach liquour solution
Side to side variations :
This is probably due to either rollers or uneven drying
If after continuous Dyeing Process, it may be due to moisture migration in Dyeing Process
Check all application and expression rollers for even pick & up. (This means Desize, scour and Bleach systems)
Check for uneveness of steam application (blocked steam line?)
Check for dripping from steamer, that may wash & off bleach liquour
Check for even drying during batching
Check for steam saturation in the steamer
Lines and patches : After Dyeing Process :
Check for complete desize before Dyeing Process. Lines may be warp size resist
Check for post & bleach contamination from machines or factory (oil spots)
Ensure temperature and chemical dose are correct for Desize
Ensure desize washing is with fresh water rather than bleach & backflow
Detection of Sizes : Qualitative Analysis
Type of Size Detection methods Colour Reaction Observations
Starch 2 drops Sol. # 1 Blue Misleading reaction with Alkaline Cellulose
PVA 2 drops sol. # 3 Brown If green, no PVA is present,
  plus 4 drops Sol. # 4   provided no starch is present
  After 5 secs. reaction time    
  rub with glass rod.    
PVA 2 drops Sol # 2 Purple Not together with starch
PVAC 2 drops Sol # 1 Red brown  

Polyacrylates Acrylic Acid

Astrazon Red Test

or 5 drops of Sol # 6

White Precipitate

PES Astrazon Red Test Red See method below
CMC 5 drops of Sol # 6 Green Colloidal Paste  
Astrazon Red Test :
0.5% Astrazon Red F3BL
0.5% Acetic Acid (30%)

Immerse the fabric cutting for 5 min at R.T. with freshly prepared dye solution. Remove it and lay it on a glass plate for 30 sec. Rinse the cutting with water for 1 min. A red colouration is formed if PES or Acrylate size is present.

Rapid Test Solutions for size detection
1.3 q
0.13 q
Potassium Iodide
2.4 q
2.6 q
Boric Acid
4 q
Potassium Dichromate
11.58 q
Conc. Sulphuric Acid
25 ml
Sod. Hydroxide
30 q
Copper Sulphate
10 q
1000 L
100 ml
50 ml
70 ml
90 ml
Desize Conditions
Starch : 1. Desize with Finozyme DX and Demineralise with Diquest SNA & Scour.
    Alkali Oxidative desize & bleach.
PVA : 2. Alkali Hot & batch alongwith Finocon FBOL and wash hot & cold.
  1. Alkali Hot & batch alongwith Finocon FBOL and wash hot & cold.
  2. Alkali boil alongwith Finocon FBOL. Hot wash & cold wash.
Acrylic :   Alkali hot batch with Finocon FBOL 95 ° C X pH 10. Hot & cold wash.
Sizers Wax :  

Hot scour in jet or batching or Pad & Steam. 95 ° C X pH 10.

CMC :   Hot scour alongwith Finocon FBOL & Wash.
PES :   Hot scour alongwith Finocon FBOL. 95 ° C pH 10.

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